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Home > Know Your Rights > Right to Equality
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Legal Framework

•  Article 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of the Constitution of India deal with the right to equality. They guarantee to all citizens of India equality before law and protection against discrimination of any sort.


•  Article 14 states that: “ The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”.

 

•  Article 15 states that: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, and place of birth or any of them. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to-


(a) Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment;


(b) The use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.”


•  Article 16 states that: “There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.”


•  Article 17 states that: “Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability rising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.”


•  Article 18 states that: “No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State. No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.”

•  The Untouchability Offences Act of 1955 (renamed to Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976) and Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 were enacted by the Parliament of India to enforce right to equality in the country.

 
 
 
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